By Dr. Adie E. Yusuf, MA.
For universities to fulfill their role as incubators of knowledge and for elementary, secondary and tertiary students to acquire and use knowledge in the 21st century, they need to be connected with the world through ICT. To achieve the ideal situation, the cost of internet access must be affordable and equitable across diverse socio-economic sectors of society.
The Ministry of National Education’ Strategic Plan stated that ICT literacy rate among lecturers and students in higher education by 2009 is expected to achieve 80% and 50% respectively. ICT literacy includes proficiency in the utilization of computer and related programs. … Teacher education institutions should also reform their curricula by integrating ICT into teacher education programs to increase ICT competencies. (Brodjonegoro, 2006)
To overcome the problem of restricted bandwidth and high cost internet access, Ministry of National Education (MONE) has developed cooperation with Indonesian Telecommunication Company (Telkom) to offer JARDIKNAS programs for school communities. In fact, ICT has been utilized in schools even though relatively small in numbers. More and more internet kiosks, not only at the post office in capital cities in the provinces but also in the districts, are available. The community has also participated in the establishment of internet kiosk (warnet). The number of schools using the internet is also increasing.
At present, in Indonesia there is a program for Elementary Teacher Education called HYLITE. The HYLITE program is an in-service teacher training program especially for elementary school teachers in Indonesia which is called PGSD program, to improve their qualifications from Diploma-2 to Strata-1 level, conducted through ICT-based learning mode. The HYLITE program utilizes distance learning mode and is offered by the consortium of 23 universities
So far there is no study examining the ICT infrastructure and its utilization in the universities which are members of HYLITE Consortium. In order to gain information regarding the ICT infrastructure and utilization in Teacher Education Institutions, The SEAMEO SEAMOLEC and USINTEC (United Stated/Indonesia Teacher Education Consortium) conducted ICT utilization study in selected Teacher Education Institutions.
This paper will describe the condition at six institutions offering the HYLITE program, in term of the ICT infrastructure and utilization, in attempt to reach the MONE Strategic Plan of 80% ICT literacy by the lecturers and students in higher education. The study is supposed to come up with recommendation and action plan to accelerate the ICT utilization to support the HYLITE program in those institutions or other institutions who wants to participate in distance learning programs.
1.2. Aims and Objectives
The ICT utilization study in six Teacher Education Institutions offering HYLITE program in Indonesia aims to strengthen institutional capacity of Elementary Teacher Education (PGSD) in Indonesia. In detail, the objectives are:
- to assess the existing ICT infrastructure facilities access in in-services teacher training program, especially in HYLITE program
- to assess the ICT utilization readiness for the lecturers of S-1 PGSD in HYLITE program
2. Literature Review
2.1. Definition of ICT Utilization
Information and communication technology (ICT) generally relates to those technologies that are used for accessing, gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information. The technologies could include hardware e.g. computers and others devices, software applications, and connectivity e.g. access to the internet, local networking infrastructure, and video conferencing (UNESCO, 2003)
Morsund (2003) provides the range of technology for ICT in more details;
- the full range of computers hardware, computer software, and telecommunications facilities
- computing devices ranging from handled calculators to super computer
- the full range of display and projection devices used to view computer output
- the local area network and wide area networks that allow computer systems and people to communicate with each other.
- digital cameras, computer games, CDs, DVDs, cell telephones, telecommunication satellites, and fiber optics
- computerized machinery, and computerized robots. (UNESCO, 2003)
ICT utilization means the using of ICT for word and data processing, presentation, email and internet browsing by the lecturers for teaching. This paper describe the study on the lecturers utilization of ICT for teaching and learning purposes, for example utilizing computer programs such as Microsoft word, spreadsheet, PowerPoint, email and internet. The study does not go into such detail as finding out the detail of ICT utilization such as for production purposes or classroom management.
2.2. Stages of ICT Utilization
There are various stages in integrating ICT into the school community and in learning about ICT as well as for effective use of ICT in teacher education, they are emerging, applying, infusing and transforming stages.
- Emerging means that administrators and teachers are beginning to explore the potential of ICT
- Applying means teachers may be using computers for words processing, databases and to explore subject-specific software
- Infusing means that a variety of ICT tools are being used and ICT is becoming integrated into the curriculum
- Transforming involves a major reconstruction of the classroom into one that is learning-centred and where ICT is used to explore a variety of real-world problems. A transformed classroom is an inquiry-oriented learning environment (UNESCO, 2003)
Gaible, Edmond and Mary Burns (2005) stated that computers raise many concerns among teachers, including:
- Technical concerns, example “How do I use the computer?”
- Functional concerns, example “What can computers help me do?”
- Logistical concerns, example “How can I use so few computers with so many students?”
- Affective concerns, example “Will these computers replace me as a teacher? Will my students lose respect if they think the computer knows more than me?”
- Organizational concerns, example “How do I organize my classroom to support the use of computers? How can they be used as part of what I already do in the classroom?”
- Conceptual concerns, example “How can I learn from and with computers?”
- Instructional concerns, example “How can computers help my students learn in different ways? How can they support the curriculum? How can they support my teaching? How should I teach using computers?”
- Evaluation concerns, example “How do I assess student learning in computer-based projects? How does this new way of learning fit with national exams?”
2.3. The Relevance Research
The ICT play an important role in ensuring quality of education through the improvement of access and promote equity in education, efficiency of education management, and quality of teaching and learning (UNESCO 2005)
The conditions of ICT utilization in education has been studied by UNESCO. An examination of countries in the Asia-Pacific region has shown that ICT is not being used to its full potential in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. There are both technical and capacity-related barriers that have to be overcome. Many countries of the region do not make use of ICT at all in their education system due to technical barriers such as lack of infrastructure, equipment and internet connectivity. ICT is used simply as a supplement for existing pedagogical practices. In order to fulfill the potential of ICT as a tool for enhancing teaching and learning, ICT must be fully integrated into pedagogical processes, which requires a cognitive shift on the part of policy makers, educators, curriculum developers, and administrators (Tatang M. Amirin, 2007)
A survey by SEAPREAMS in eleven Pacific countries has identified five main barriers in implementing ICT program in schools that are physical obstacle like remoteness and an unreliable electricity supply, scarcity of fund, lack of staff development, insufficient and inappropriate software, and the speed of technological development (UNESCO, 2003).
2.4. Implementation of HYLITE Program
HYLITE (Hybrid Learning for Indonesian Teachers) Program is an in-service teachers training program, especially designed for primary school teachers (PGSD) in Indonesia, to improve their qualification from Diploma (D-2) to Sarjana (S-1) level, conducted via open and distance learning mode. It is one of the delivery mode taken by MONE, in providing access for quality education for all, especially for primary school teachers in all areas in Indonesia. It is designed for primary school teachers aiming to especially upgrade their competencies and qualification through a continuing process of education with a lifelong learning spirit. Specifically, the HYLITE Program is an innovative program to overcome the issue of scarcity of quality primary school teachers, especially through the extensive use of ICT-based learning (Pannen, Riyanti, and Pramuki, 2007).
The HYLITE program employs one curriculum for the 23 consortium members, with the load of 82-credit semester. Those credits include the professional and physical education courses. The HYLITE program utilizes the hybrid-learning model, which is the combination of residential and independent learning. The distance learning mode employs in hybrid delivery system, such as residential program and independent learning using print, web-based, and multimedia to accommodate the teaching and learning activities. The HYLITE program is supported by ICT owned by each of the consortium member institution.
The residential program is conducted for one month at the beginning of each semester. During the residential period, the students will be engaged in various tutorial activities, including laboratory works, and sit in the examination for the previous semester. After the residential program, the students will go home and study independently using the available learning resources. The web-based courses and facilitation of the learning process are accessible through the ICT centres and any internet café. The facilitation of students’ learning process is provided through the online interaction utilizing five online interaction within five months of the semester, and or synchronous interaction in the form of teleconference once every semester.
Based on monitoring and evaluation by SEAMOLEC, it is found out that HYLITE program has been seen to have several benefits, among others, teachers can upgrade their qualification without leaving their daily jobs in schools, teachers (as well as lecturers and administrators of HYLITE program at the teacher colleges) can improve their ICT literacy and skills, teacher colleges can improve their collaboration and mutual acknowledgement to implement the HYLITE program. (Pannen, Riyanti and Pramuki (2007)
3.1. Methods and Procedure
The method of the study is survey using questionnaire, observation and interview techniques. The instruments was developed and modified from available instruments to meet the objectives of this study. The survey includes question items to establish and document the current ICT infrastructure and utilization in HYLITE program. (See Appendix-3)
The ICT utilization study was conducted on August 2007. Small team was assigned to conduct the assessment at each of HYLITE member universities. The team consists of SEAMOLEC staff and USINTEC ICT specialists. The responses are collected directly on site at the six universities in HYLITE program.
3.2. Problem Statement
- To what extend the access of ICT infrastructure and network facilities for lecturers support ICT based learning
- To what extend the effectiveness of ICT infrastructure and utilization in HYLITE program towards the ICT based learning.
All lecturers of the six universities members of HYLITE program offering S-1 PGSD program, they are Universitas Negeri Semarang, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Universitas Negeri Malang, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, and Universitas Negeri Gorontalo.
4. Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1. The Capability in Using ICT Software
Data was gathered from the lecturers of six universities in HYLITE program. The total number of respondents were 93 (55 male and 36 female). The data distribution of respondent age was 12 persons under 30 year; 42 persons between 30 to 50 year; and 39 persons over 50 year old. Educational level of these respondents was 23 persons S-1; 56 persons S-2; and 14 persons S-3. The length of using computer was also difference: 12 persons less than 1 year, 11 persons between 1–2 years, 7 persons between 3-4 years, and 56 persons more than 5 years.
The data of lecturer’s capability in using ICT software particularly offices application such as word processing, spread sheet, power point, e-mail, internet, and statistical tools are shown in Table-1. The capability in using ICT software (office applications) are categorized as capable is regarded as good, very good and excellence and the rest is not capable.
The Capability in Using ICT Software
|No.||Office Application||Capable (%)||Not capable (%)|
The data analysis of HYLITE program lecturer capability in using ICT software (office applications) as shown in Table-1 indicates that the capability of lecturer in using word processing is relatively fair (43.8%), spreadsheet is very good (71%), power point is good (58.8%), e-mail is good (58%), internet is fair (29.3%), and statistical tool is fair (37.9%)
Based on the observation and interview data in each university, the university generally has already had ICT infrastructure. The computers were already connected to the local network and internet. However, there was an exception that HYLITE program not have access to these equipment and facilities. This fact might be the cause of the lack of capability in using office applications in teaching and learning activities.
4.2. The ICT Utilization for Teaching and Learning
The Use of ICT by lecturer of HYLITE program in teaching and learning activities including teaching specific subject, finding and accessing information and educational materials, making presentation and lecture, preparing lesson, communicating with students, and preparing reports are shown in Table-2.
The utilization of ICT which is categorized as using ICT is regarded as often and very often use ICT in teaching and learning and which categorized as not using ICT is regarded as seldom and never using it as seen in the following table.
The ICT Utilization for Teaching-Learning Activities
|No.||Activities||% of Using ICT||% of Not Using ICT|
|1||Teaching-learning specific object||20.0%||80.0%|
|2||Finding and accessing information and educational materials||31.4%||68.6%|
|3||Making presentations and lecture||40.3%||59.7%|
|5||Communicating with students||24.3%||75.7%|
Table-2 shows that it is still far from the target of Ministry of National Education Plan in 2009 that 80% of lecturers should have ICT literacy. In fact only 20% of the lecturer used ICT in teaching specific courses and 31.4% used ICT in finding educational materials.
In face-to-face lecturing, presentation of materials is important. By using good presentation, many things can be done effectively. Time consumption in writing on the white board can be reduced and students can focus their attention to the presentation. However, data shows that only 40.3% of lecturers used ICT in their class presentation.
ICT can be utilized by lecturers in preparing their lessons. When the material is already prepared, lecturers can optimize the use of time in the class with the students. The data shows that only 27.9% of lecturers used ICT in preparing their lessons.
In HYLITE program, one mode in delivering course materials is by using e-mail. Lecturers should using e-mail in corresponding to their students or vice versa. However only 24.3% of lecturer used ICT in communicating with students.
As lecturers, they have to make reports for some activities, either for class activities or for research activities. It can be seen that only 25.8% of lecturer used ICT in preparing reports. The rest of respondents probably just asked other people to write the reports for them.
4.3. Correlational Analysis of Lecturer’s Capabilitiy in Using ICT
The result of correlation analysis of lecturer’s capability in using ICT indicated that the older the lecturers the lesser the ability in utilizing ICT. Many correlation coefficients between age and the ability in using ICT showed minus ( – ) sign. This information showed that elder lecturers might not have motivation in learning ICT compare to the younger lecturers. It is obvious that years in using computer had positive and significant correlation with the use of ICT and computers’ software. (See Appendix-1)
The correlation analysis of lecturer’s capability of ICT indicated that the ability in utilizing word processor had high and positively significant correlation with powerpoint, e-mailing, internet browsing and other abilities. Powerpoint of course have strong relation to making-presentation (r=0,635, significant at 0,000). E-mailing and communication with students also had strong correlation (r=626, significant at 0,000). Internet browsing and finding educational materials also had significant correlation (r=0,454; significant at 0,000). The results of correlational analysis means that if the lecture has ability in using one ICT software, most probably he/she will be able to use others. (See Appendix-2)
The on site findings stated that Jardiknas station placed at vocational school is inefficient since it is placed far away from the residence. Most of the students do not have skills and knowledge to operate computers. Infrastructure and computer room facility are not adequate. Upgrade quality of network / internet connections (now average 128 kbps per university). Training on web based learning and provision of ICT based learning and administration.
As far as the ICT utilization in HYLITE program is concern there are several improvement needed for lecturer, particularly the capabilitiy in ICT literarcy, ICT software utilization, as well as integrated ICT based-curriculum of the HYLITE program. According to UNESCO ICT develoment stages, the HYLITE program is still in the position of applying stages. This means that the lecturers and staffs of the universities of HYLITE program have to learn more about how to use ICT.
Since the 80% ICT literacy is targeted by The Ministry of National Education Strategic Plan will probably not achieved by 2009, because more than 50% of PGSD lecturer have no capability in ICT. The ICT utilization of lecturers in HYLITE program remain below average. Therefore, there will be a lot of training and motivation needed to improve ICT literacy for lecturers as well as technical supporting in the implementation of ICT based learning. The ICT utilization should be focused on improving teaching and learning activities for HYLITE program.
This result of the study concluded that lecturers of HYLITE program have average capabilities in utilize the word-processing, powerpoint, and spreadsheet, and email. The lecturers gradually developed the abilities to adapt the demand of ICT-based distance learning system, i.e.: utilizing internet to communicate to the distance learners and using the spreadsheet to manage large amount of data from the students’ assignments. In this case, it necessitates to broadening the learning program to all in-service teachers education and other students in remote area by integrating JARDIKNAS and INHERENT.
The HYLITE program necessitates for the lecturers to connect with students at anytime and anywhere. It means that each lecturer should develop capability in e-mailing and send the initiation materials to all students who participate in his/her course. They also need to develop the capability to utilize internet to help students in using the web-based course materials or to provide references to answer students’ questions.
In order to improve the ICT infrastructure and utilization in the HYLITE program in the future, it is recommended that the program do as follows:
- the ICT infrastructure including software, teleconference and web based learning facilities, should be upgraded according to the numbers of lecturer’s needs for implementing ICT based learning..
- university’s staff for ICT specialists development, ICT instructional design development, ICT content based development should be added more
- training and mentoring for S-1 PGSD lecturers and students in implementing and using ICT should be improved.
- the utilization of ICT to support academic program, collaborative research, and to share the teaching experience of field experience practice should be distributed
- ICT literacy and English language capacity for lecturers, staff and students should be improved
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Vicki L. Cohen, Fairleigh Dickinson University, firstname.lastname@example.org